Birds Black Hills Mediation and Law - Attorney | Rapid City, SD

Should have called Lorie

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Do not give a statement without a lawyer present

Did you know? The government is allowed to prove both the agreement and the Defendants knowing participation through circumstantial evidence. The government can allege that some conspirators are “unknown” to the grand jury.


A Defendant’s sympathy for or approval of a conspiracy, knowledge of or failure to inform authorities, desire to see the conspiracy succeed or presence at the scene are insufficient to prove knowing participation. However, if one of the conspirators commits a substantive crime in furtherance of the conspiracy and the crime was reasonably foreseeable, each conspirator can be vicariously convicted.

Depending on the drug involved some mandatory minimums through federal sentencing guidelines have been removed, however, statutory punishment is still applicable. See, Alleyne v. United States, 133 S.CT. 2151 (2013).


Anything you say in a federal case not only affects the charge, but in federal court everything, including other persons charged with the same offense with you.

Black Hills Mediation and Law of Rapid City, South Dakota has experience with cross-examination of confidential informants.

Experience in Federal Sentencing Advocacy




New policy relevant to sentencing